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How to reduce and limit the pressures of a hydraulic system?

The optimal pressure of a hydraulic system is something quite fundamental. So, being clear on the right way to handle them is essential. It is important to know how to reduce and limit the pressures to optimize the whole system. Everything in the system is interconnected, from the hydraulic fittings to the seals. So, how to reduce and limit the pressure ? Let's see it right away !

A little reminder about hydraulic motors

Before we start, a brief reminder about our motors.

A hydraulic motor has a simple definition. It is a motor whose objective is to create mechanical energy by channelling and directing a hydraulic source, often a special industrial liquid. Most often an oil. The conversion of the pressurized fluid into mechanical force is referred to as hydrostatic transmission. This is the basis of the engine we are talking about today.

This way of generating energy uses fluid pressure. It is the combination of pumps, valves and other reservoirs that allow these fluids to be put under pressure. These fluids are then channeled towards the engine to produce mechanical energy and thus ensure its operation. The movement thus created is sent to a load. The mechanical energy generated is then transformed into the rotary motion of the output shaft. Our motor can thus turn and fulfill its function !

Now that we are clear, let's move on to the pressures, and especially how to reduce and limit them.

Reducing and limiting pressures

The pressure in a hydraulic motor is essential. It is indeed the pressure that allows to channel the inputs in the motor, including the management of the liquid and the pressure drops or not.

To channel it in an optimal way, we will first focus on a notion, that of minimum opening pressure.

This corresponds to the pressure that will be applied to the inlet valve to force the spring drill to let the liquid in. The aim is to allow the liquid to enter the engine at a guaranteed minimum level.

Below this minimum pressure, the liquid does not pass. The pressure is therefore calculated to deliver the minimum quantity required for optimal engine operation. In fact, if it guarantees the minimum delivery, it cannot intervene on the maximum quantity delivered. Other valves take care of this.

This valve allows to reduce and limit the pressures in the engine, without causing pressure losses.

But what are these losses ?

To speak about the concept of pressure loss is to speak about everything that is concerned in some way by the decrease in the engine's load that is involved. Any rupture or reduction in the supply of operating fluid.

In addition to a defect in the minimum required supply, the concept of minimum opening pressure, there are also the various concepts and problems related to the state of the liquids or pipes and valves that can hinder the proper circulation of the liquid in the engine.

These various technical problems can be as follows :

  • Oil viscosity
  • Presence of air
  • Sticking of some spools
  • Oscillations

We can see that the problems linked to pressure reductions and others are essential because they inevitably end up involving the whole system itself. A good follow-up is therefore necessary !